Spanning Systems: Trees and Caves, Truss and Vault
Mosque of Cordoba/Bramante’s Tempieto
Great Mosque of Cordoba (La Mezquita)
(from The Atlas of Sacred Places by James Harpur)
- Capital of Spanish Muslim dynasty of the Umayyads 756 – 1031
- North of Guadalquivir River
- Honey colored walls, buttressed and crenelated rise up to 75’ tall
- Interior prayer hall with walls adorned by mosaics and calligraphic inscriptions and filled with hundreds of slender columns and horseshoe striped arches
- Stands on ground that has been sacred to three religions
- Roman Empire – Temple to Janus
- Visigoths – middle of first millennium A.D. the Roman temple turned to Christian church St. Vincent
- Moorish – late 8th century half of the Christian church became a mosque under Umayyad Abd ar-Rahman I
- Spanish – 1236 King Ferdinand III reverted mosque to Christian sanctuary
- Emperor Charles V, 1523 authorized the building ofa cruciform cathedral in middle of mosque
- Pillars, arches, and part of wooden ceiling torn down to make way for new anomalous structure that rose above mosque’s roof
- 19th century French writer Theophile Gautier “this parasite of a church.. an architectural wart breaking out on the back of the Arab structure.”
- Main entrance leads to Court of Orage Trees, peaceful prelude to mosque interior (trees loved by Moors, nostalgic for their desert homeland)
- Orange trees set in rows, swaying palm trees, and fountain pools
- Once entered, forest of marble arches sprout from marble floor in regular rows, each spanned by double red and white stripped arches
- Their curving lines lit and half lit in splashes of light filtering through windows in roof
- Above them, starry canopy with hundreds of chandeliers and silver, golden, and brass lamps hanging from sliver chains shed glittering light
- On north side of prayer hall, arches were open to Court of Orange Trees from which the scent of blossoms waft into interior
Articles (in jpg format)
The cathedral in the mosque and the two palaces: additions to the Great Mosque of Cordoba and the Alhambra during the reign of Charles V
Citation Only Available . By: Anderson, Glaire D.. Thresholds, 2002 Fall, n.25, p.48-55. (journal article) (English) AN: 569003
The meaning of the Great Mosque of Cordoba in the tenth century
Citation Only Available . By: Khoury, Nuha N. N.. Muqarnas, 1996, v.13, p.-98. (journal article) (English) AN: 412609
The Great Mosque of Córdoba in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries
Citation Only Available . By: Ecker, Heather. Muqarnas, 2003, v.20, p.-157. (journal article) (English) AN: 582219
Orig. built in 9th cent
The mosque and the cathedral
Citation Only Available . By: Moneo, José Rafael, 1937-. FMR, 1988 July-Aug. v.7, no.33, p.91-120. (journal article) (English) AN: 288674
Features the Great Mosque and the Cathedral of Córdoba.
Bramante’s Tempietto of S. Pietro in Montorio
- Built 1502
- Turned to Antiquity for architectural forms
- Column understood as part of organic system, of order, no longer ‘ornament’
- Alberti: must clearly return to its original function as a support in post and lintel system, uncompromised by arches
- ‘Wall-ness’ of the inner wall is underlined by its continuity
- Pilaster, with its ‘double nature’ as a projection of the column on to the wall and at the same time as rhythmic element in the wall itself forms natural link between post and lintel system and wall system
- Problem historically, structurally, conceptually combining the two systems
- Building is geometrical solid; cylinder plus hemisphere
- Could not raise drum high enough to allow it an order of columns like the one below or could he leave the wall surface without pilaster, niches and windows, to link it visually with the lower part of the building
- Instead reduced upper entablature to minimum, a simple strip with small cornice above it, changed pilaster into schematized projection with out capitals surrounded by shallow moulding (to avoid changing height)
- To visually link the upper and lower inserted small, continuous balustrade, functionally useless but with its light, openwork mass, transitioned entablature of peristyle to drum
Bramante's Hetruscan tempietto
Available at Brown Rock. Library
Bramante's Tempietto: Spanish royal patronage in Rome
By: Howard, Deborah.
Apollo, 1992 Oct., v.136, n.368, p.211-217. (journal article) (English) AN: 322908
The Tempietto and the roots of coincidence
By: Wilson Jones, Mark, 1956-.
Architectural history, 1990, v.33, p.1-28. (journal article) (English) AN: 312619
Knowledge: Wisdom vs Science Places of Study and Contemplation
Padua Anatomical Theater / Berlin Free University
Ox's Eyeball drawing (from http://www.unipd.it/esterni/visiteweb/english/pagine/teatro.htm)
In reality, notwithstanding long and patient research, nothing has been found that has made it possible to identify, with certainty, the person who designed the Padua Anatomy Theatre. The same is true for that other great 16th century scientific project in Padua: the Botanical Garden. However, the fact that neither of these works has a definite author could suggest that they were co-operatively designed, using the "internal" skills available in and around the University at the time. It is fairly certain that Andrea Moroni had a hand in the design for the Botanical Garden. At that time, 1545, he was overseer of St Justina, of the Palazzo Podestarile and had probably already been selected to oversee the restoration of the Palazzo Bo' buildings 22. The `technician' involved in the design of the Anatomy Theatre could have been the architect and painter Dario Varotari (1542 - 1596) 23, summoned, perhaps informally, by Aquapendente himself. Varotari had already designed Aquapendente's country house and had executed some of the anatomical paintings mentioned earlier 24. The same, however, could be true of Paolo Sarpi (1552 - 1623). He was a friend, a patient, and, although less well known, a scientist who worked with Aquapendente and worked so well that the anatomist, who was usually very sparing with his praise, congratulated Sarpi in public for his contribution to the understanding of pupillary contraction 25. But this is guesswork, and Paolo Sarpi's role, if he had one, in designing the theatre would remain pure conjecture but for two other coincidences. Firstly, we know that Aquapendente began to study the anatomy of the eye again 26 in 1592, precisely when the first permanent theatre 27 had to be replaced and, secondly, a drawing of an ox's eyeball inserted into his work on sense organs, is very like a bird's eye view of the theatre itself. This coincidence makes us bold enough to suggest that the design for the anatomy theatre could have been developed during the period when the two friends were working on the anatomy of the eye. There may even be a hint of irony in the design, given the old Professor's character 28; But the problem the theatre design had to solve, and did solve, was how to create a structure that would allow the maximum number of people to have the best possible conditions when participating in an unrepeatable experiment: the dissection of a corpse.
Link to virtual tour of Padua Anatomical Theater:
The Architecture of Science
Edited by Peter Galison and Emily Thompson
MIT Press, 1999
- How do the spaces in which science is done shape the identity of the scientist and the self-conception of scientific fields? How do the sciences structure the identity of the architect and the practice of architecture in a specific period? And how does the design of spaces such as laboratories, hospitals, and museums affect how the public perceives and interacts with the world of science? The Architecture of Science offers a dazzling set of speculations on these issues by historians of science, architecture, and art; architectural theorists; and sociologists as well as practicing scientists and architects.
Alberti’s ideal patrician household
- Adjacent bedrooms for husband and wife; off husband’s bedroom was study, off woman’s was dressing room
- “Ideal City” of Sporzinda
- Artisan joined to ‘learned’ knowledge (produced guides)
- Before Galilean break architecture and science ‘linked at very inception of western tradition’
- Laboratory Design and the Aim of Science: Andreas Libavius versus Tycho Brahe
Isis, Vol. 77, No. 4 (Dec., 1986), pp. 585-610
(article consists of 27 pages)
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/233163
- (11 September 1522 - 4 May 1605) was an Italian naturalist, the moving force behind Bologna's botanical garden, one of the first in Europe. Carolus Linnaeus and the comte de Buffon reckoned him the father of natural history studies. He is usually referred to, especially in older literature, as Aldrovandus; his name in Italian is equally given as Aldroandi.
- 3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527 – museum focus on interior; his study where he shed garments of everyday life to commune with the ancients presented with image of solitude
Lorenzo Lotto , Study, 1527
Ferrante Imperato, Dell'historia Naturale, Venice, 1599
Islamic hospitals were built in the Middle East between the eighth and the 13th century AD., where the Muslims benefited from and developed the knowledge they had acquired from the translated medical manuscripts of the Greek and Roman civilization.
Origins of museums?
Articles (in pdf format)
THEATRUM ANATOMICUM IN HISTORY AND TODAY.
Papers on Anthropology; 2002, Vol. 11, p221, 17p, 8 Black and White Photographs
The first dissections of the human body were performed in small makeshift rooms. Early designs of anatomical theatres were produced by Alexander Benedictus from Padua in 1497 and Carolus Stephanus from Paris in 1564.
Civility, Comportment, and the Anatomy Theater: Girolamo Fabrici and His Medical
Students in Renaissance Padua.
Renaissance Quarterly; Summer2007, Vol. 60 Issue 2, p434-463, 30p
Scans & Books
Museum origins : readings in early museum history and philosophy
edited by Hugh H. Genoways
Walnut Creek, CA : Left Coast Press, c2008. 344 p. ; 24 cm.
Museums, their history and their use : with a bibliography and list of museums in the United Kingdom
Murray, David, 1842-1928.
Staten Island, N.Y. : Pober Publishing, 2000.
2 v. in 3 ; 24 cm.
Catalogue of the exhibition of Chinese calligraphy and painting in the collection of John M. Crawford
Crawford, John M.
New York : Pierpont Morgan Library, c1962.
53 p.,  p. of plates : ill. ; 26 cm.
Masterpieces of Chinese calligraphy in the National Palace Museum.
Kuo li ku kung po wu yüan.
Taipei : National Palace Museum, .
119 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 28 cm.
A history of Chinese calligraphy / Tseng Yuho.
Tseng, Yu-ho, 1924-
Hong Kong : Chinese University Press, c1993.
xxix, 415 p. : ill., map ; 30 cm.
Berlin Free University
With the Free University Library in Berlin, Foster and Partners inserts a radically new element into an iconic Modern campus while respecting the context.
Free University Berlin
Website [Free University Official Website]
The University and Democracy:
The University and Democracy:The Free University (FU) has seen itself from the very beginning as a university at the very heart of democracy. In making student participation an integral part of its independent academic administration, it became Germany's first "reform university".
The Architecture of the Free University:
Plans for the FU's core area in Dahlem followed the university campus model developed in Britain and the USA. Edwin Redslob, the second President of the FU, wrote the following about it in 1963: "Specialization on the one hand and grouping on the other are the consequences for the architecture, a complex which combines a wealth of individual buildings and itself forms an overall unity." This was something new for Germany. Until then, the dominant ethos had been that of monumental main buildings, sited as centrally as possible in the city. The Dahlem campus, with its institutes accommodated in old villas and in research buildings once used by the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, gained a central focus in the 1950s, in the form of the Henry Ford Building and the Library. They were soon added to, with the Dining Hall (Mensa I) and the buildings of the Department of Economics and Social Sciences, all erected in a contemporary, functional and elegant style. The years that followed saw the construction of more buildings as the Dahlem university area expanded. Sites were also found further afield, such as the Veterinary Science Department in Düppel, at the beginning of the 1950s, and the grounds of the former Teacher Training College in Lankwitz for Earth Sciences and for Communication Studies in 1980.