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석빙고 (Suk Bing Go)

-     Stone-made ice storage.

-     Purpose: to store ices in summer period.

-     Originated in Sin Ra empire (505)

-     The architecture that is left these days was made as early as 1713.

Shape and construction

-     Round, half pipe, top and half basement.

-     Higher lever of the ground at the entrance and lower in the back.

-     Width varies from 4 -6 meters. The length is determined by the width and is usually 2X or 4X of the width.

-     Used Granite for the top. Usually not so heavy, around 500 kg, so that is portable.

How does it work?

The air pocket located in the top arch that stores that hot air and keeps it from entering. Due to the pressure level, the hot air tends to move upward, and is led to the air pocket. Then they will be out of the structure through the ventilation.

Tilted floor is made for drainage.

The structure is shelled by bunches of dried plants, which acts as thermal resistance. Also the grass and clay that is used to construct the wall gives high water proof rate.

The wing structure installed at the entrance creates wind turbulence and sucks the cold wind into the structure. This would guarantee the access of the cold wind throughout the building.


Date back as early as Greco-Roman world.

The mill uses the power of water to grind grain into flour.

The best example is Barbegal aqueduct and mill.

-     Located on the territory of the commune of Fontvieille, near the town of Arles, in southern France.

-     Built to supply drinking water from the mountain chain of the Alpilles to the town of Arles.

By transferring the burden of labor from manpower to the architecture machine, it liberates people from labor.

The installation of multiple members enables it to go further


月牙天 Crescent Lake

 Located in Dunhuang, China.

 Crescent Lake in the middle of dessert, called Myung Sa Mountain, meant crying sand mountain. Myung Sa Mountain is part of the Gobi Desert.

The shape of the lake reminds of one of the phase of the moon.

Believed to be there for about 2000 years. Never been dried.

The temple was constructed around

Ab Anbar

Ab anbar is a traiditional reservoir of drinking water in Persian antiquity.

To endure the pressure the water exerts, the storage itself was built below ground level.

The construction material is Sarooj, made of sand, clay, egg whites, lime, goat hair, and ash. It was water impenetrable. The wall was often 2 meters thick.

The windcatchers: it moves the air masses at the top of windcatchers create a pressure gradient between the top of the windcatcher and its base, inside, at the bottom of the shaft. It sucks the hot air from inside and make only cold air remains. It prevents the humidity, and provide clean, fresh water throughout the year.

Ab Anbar symbolizes the difference between the riches and the poor. While the urban city grows in term of the population and economical value, the needs of water also has increased. The riches then created Ab anbar  to own the fresh water to their own and not to be thirty.

Roman Bath

Machu Picchu.

The Inca enhanced the yield of the spring by building a spring collection system set into the hillside. The system consists of a stone wall about 14.6 m long and up to 1.4 m high. Water from the spring seeps through the wall into a rectangular stone trench about 0.8 m wide. Water from a secondary spring enters the canal about 80 m west of the primary spring. The Inca also built a 1.5 to 2 m wide terrace to allow easy access for operating and maintaining the spring works.

Before the city could be built, however, the Inca engineers had to plan how to convey the water from the spring–at an elevation of 2,458 m–to the proposed site on the ridge below. They decided to build a canal 749 m long with a slope of about 3 percent. With the city walls, the water would be made accessible through a series of 16 fountains, the first of which would be reserved for the emperor. Thus the canal design, says Wright, determined the location of the emperor's residence and the layout of the entire city of Machu Picchu.

The Inca built the water supply canal on a relatively steady grade, depending on gravity flow to carry the water from the spring to the city center. They used cut stones to construct a channel that typically ranged from 10 to 16 cm deep and 10 to 12 cm wide at the bottom. Wright's team concluded that the nominal design capacity of the channel was about 300 L/min, or more than twice the typical 25 to 150 L/min yield of the primary spring.

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The Nilometer on Roda Island in Cairo


Constructed about 715 AD.

It consists of a large pit that extends below the level of the Nile.

In the center of the large well, there is a marble octagonal column.  This column is divided into 19 sections, which measure the water level and indicate the warning level accordingly.

This architectural device can also be very important in terms of recording the Nile water level and its related result. El Nino is a great example. The research found a strong relationship between the Nile’s water level and the existence of El Nino. So strong that almost proximity for El Nino occurrence. 

Jawa Dam

  • most ancient, built around 3000 b.c.
  • to control the water
  • Part of artificial reservoirs – to do that this dam was built on the way from rajil river.


The Harbaqa Dam

Roman gravity dam in the Syrian desert. Built in 2nd centry AD.

Built of a concrete core with ashlar outside. 


Cornalvo Dam

Roman gravity dam in Badajoz Province

Built in 1st or 2nd AD.



Water Cisterns

Pompeii: fill the water needs by having rooftop or extensive cistern.

Cosa: Communal water cistern: serving the city and its bath

Pozzuoli: massive water cistern with advance concrete technology.

early in their history Romans developed a highly effective systems of bringing water in conduits to their cities from sources many miles away. The conduits were either open channels, or more commonly, pipes made of clay or bronze or lead, laid underground


Water aqueduct

Pont du Gard: 

20 B.C

Water to Nimes in southern France from a source 30 miles away.

Aqueducts serves as a bridge over – utilitarian concern

DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.
DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.
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The Harbaqa Dam


Roman Gravity damn in the Syrian desert. Built in 2nd century.

Built of a concrete core with ashlar outside



DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.